Alignment Angles and Effects

Tire Wear Due to Improper Toe Settings
Toe is the most critical alignment setting for steer axle tire wear.  It is measured in inches, millimeters or degrees.

Total Toe is the angle formed by two horizontal
lines through the planes of two wheels. Toe-in is
when the horizontal lines intersect in front of the
vehicle; Toe-out is when the horizontal lines
intersect behind the wheels.

Total Toe is the angle formed by two horizontal

Individual Toe is the angle drawn by a line
drawn through a plane of one wheel referenced
to the thrust line of the vehicle. Toe-in is when
the horizontal lines intersect in front of the
wheel. Toe-out is when the lines intersect
behind the wheel.

   Results of excessive toe is wear on the
   leading edge of the tire.
   toe is wear on the leading edge of the tire

   Excessive toe-in wears the outside of the tire.

   toe-out wears the inside of the tire

    Excessive toe-out wears the inside of the tire.

 

 

 

 

Tire Wear Due to Improper
Camber Settings

Tire Wear Due to Improper

Camber is the angle formed by the inward or
outward tilt of the wheel referenced to a vertical
line. This angle is measured in degrees.
Camber is positive when the wheel is tilted
outward at the top and is negative when the
wheel is tilted inward at the top.

This angle is measured in degrees

Tire wear from excessive camber: Wear
from positive camber is on the outside shoulder
of the tire; with negative camber, wear is on the
inside shoulder.

 

 

 

 

 

      Caster: A Factor in
      Vehicle Handling

    Caster: A Factor in

     Caster is the forward or rearward tilt of the
     steering axis in reference to a vertical line. The
     angle is measured in degrees. Caster is positive
     when the top of the steering axis is tilted rearward
     and is negative when the tilt is forward. Caster is
     usually a factor in vehicle handling, but can affect
     tire wear. Proper caster is important for directional
     stability and returnability. Improper caster can
     cause shimmy, excessive steering effort, pulling
     and shoulder wear on the steer tires.

     Turning Angle

     Turning angle is the difference in the angles of
     the front wheels in a turn. This measurement is an
     aid in diagnosing steering problems and irregular
     tire wear. Improper turning angle may cause
     scuffing, leading to excessive tire wear.

    Turning angle is the difference in the angles


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